A broad definition comes from the organization that Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee
helped found, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C):
"The World Wide Web is the universe of network-accessible information, an
embodiment of human knowledge."
The World Wide Web (www),
WEB, or W3, is an information architecture that was started by the CERN
(European Laboratory for Particles Physics). It defines the components of
a global information system and the way they work together, and all the
specifications are public domain. The web appears as a seemingly infinite
system of servers all tied together by hypertext links, and which has now
reached critical mass with new commercial and noncommercial sites appearing
every day. The major reasons for the success of the Internet are also simple:
real-time access to all kinds of information, and real-time communications.
This makes the Internet an ideal medium for managing enterprise data, especially
for organizations that maintain sites in multiple locations, and even multiple
countries. Web-based applications let users harness the power of the Internet
to deploy and support enterprise solutions with lower costs, high returns
on investment, and better scalability and performance.
- The RAND proposal (the brainchild of Paul Baran) was made public in
1964. The principles were simple:
network would be assumed to be unreliable.
the nodes would be equal in status to all other nodes.
messages would be divided into packets.
- The particular route that the packet took would be unimportant. Only
final results would count.
- The National Physical Laboratory in Great Britain set up the first
test network on these principles in 1968.
- Shortly afterward, the Pentagon's Advanced Research Projects Agency
decided to fund a larger, more ambitious project in the USA. In fall
1969, the first such node was installed in UCLA.
- By December 1969, there were four nodes on the infant network, which
was named ARPANET, after its Pentagon sponsor.
- In 1971 there were fifteen nodes in ARPANET; by 1972, thirty-seven
nodes. And it was good.
- By the second year of operation, ARPANET's users had warped the computer-sharing
network into a dedicated, high-speed, federally subsidized electronic
- Throughout the '70s, ARPA's network grew.
- The ARPA's original "Network Control Protocol," was superceded
- Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) converts messages into streams
of packets then reassembles them at the destination.
- Internet Protocol (IP) handles the addressing, routing across multiple
nodes, networks, and standards - like Ethernet, FDDI, and X.25.
- 1977 - TCP/IP links other networks to link to ARPANET.
- 1983 - the military segment breaks off and becomes MILNET.
- Since TCP/IP was public-domain, it was difficult to stop people from
linking up, which brought about the birth of the "Internet."
- Like the phone network, the computer network became steadily more
valuable as it embraced larger and larger territories of people and
- 1984 - the National Science Foundation sets a blistering pace for
technical advancement, linking newer, faster, shinier supercomputers,
through thicker, faster links, upgraded and expanded, again and again,
in 1986, 1988, 1990.
- Government agencies leap in: NASA, the National Institutes of Health,
and the Department of Energy each maintaining a digital realm in the
- Nodes divided up into basic group "domains": governmental,
military, educational, commercial, organization and networks. The net
computers served as gateways between networks.
- ARPANET itself formally expires in 1989, a happy victim of its own
Why Do People Want To Be On The Internet?
One of the main reasons is simple freedom. The Internet is a rare example
of a true, modern, functional anarchy. There is no "Internet Inc." There
are no official censors, no bosses, no board of directors, no stockholders.
The Internet is also a bargain. It doesn't charge for long-distance service
or access time. In fact, the "Internet" itself, which doesn't even officially
exist as an entity, never "charges" for anything. Each group accessing the
Internet is responsible for its own machine and section of line. The Internet's
"anarchy" may seem strange, but it makes a certain deep and basic sense.
It's rather like the English language. Nobody owns English. As an English-speaking
person, it's up to you to learn how to speak English properly and make whatever
use you please of it.
The Internet Belongs To Everyone, and No One.
Today, even desktop computers can become Internet nodes. You can carry one
under your arm. Soon, perhaps, on your wrist.
- Business wants the Internet put on a financial footing
- Government wants the Internet more fully regulated
- Academics want it dedicated to scholarly research
- The Military wants it spy-proof and secure
- All these sources of conflict remain in a stumbling balance
- Once, the NSFnet's high-speed, high-capacity lines were known as the
"Internet Backbone," but today there are "backbones"
in virtually every country, and privately owned commercial Internet
What Does One Do With The Internet?
Four things, basically:
Internet mail is "e-mail," electronic mail, faster
by several orders of magnitude than land mail, which is scornfully known
as "snail mail."
- Discussion Groups
The discussion groups, or "newsgroups,"
are a world of their own. This world of news, debate, and argument is
generally known as "USENET. " It is like an enormous crowd of gossipy,
news-hungry people. At the moment there are some 2,500 separate newsgroups
and their discussions generate about 7 million words of typed commentary
every single day.
- Long-Distance Computing
Long-distance computing and file
transfer require what is known as "direct Internet access" - using TCP/IP.
Long-distance computing programmers can maintain accounts on distant,
powerful computers, run programs there, or write their own. Scientists
can use powerful supercomputers a continent away. libraries offer their
electronic card catalogs for free search. Enormous CD-ROM catalogs are
increasingly available through this service. And there are fantastic
amounts of free software available.
- File Transfers
File transfers allow Internet users to
access remote machines and retrieve programs or text. Many Internet
computers allow any person to access them anonymously, and to simply
copy their public files, free of charge. This is no small deal, since
entire books can be transferred through direct Internet access in a
matter of minutes. Internet programs, such as "archie," "gopher," and
"WAIS," have been developed to catalog and explore these enormous archives
Java: Why Is It Important?
With Java technology, the Internet and private networks become your computing
environment. Coupled with the power of networking, the Java platform is
doing things that were previously unimaginable. For example, users can securely
access their applications when they're away from the office by using any
computer that's connected to the Internet.
Expanding Internet technologies have redefined corporate approaches to Internet
working and security. As the Internet becomes the forum for corporate communications
and international commerce, enterprises require an innovative, comprehensive
security solution. GreenSuite must meet the growing connectivity needs while
maintaining the network security solution. We have to enable the enterprise
to define and enforce a single, comprehensive security policy while providing
full, transparent connectivity. Products and or services that provide a
platform for secure enterprise connectivity must be sort and deployed. How
will we do this:
- Use third party products
- Analyze the customers existing security model
- Deliver the required level of security to satisfy the need
- Adapt and change to address the challenges resulting from an evolving
- Continued vigilance and monitoring
- Networks require software that is portable, modular, and secure -
Java shines, because it was designed for use on networks from the beginning