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The Web

Environmental Glossary

Visit the Environmental Protection Agency website for a comprehensive list of environmental terms and acronyms.

Technical Glossary

The following is a glossary of technical terms related to the SOA4 technology. Click on the term below to read its definition:
 Applet  Java  RMI
 Browsers  JDBC  Server
 Cache  JRE  Servlet
 GUI  Metadata  XML

Terms Definitions
Browsers Also Web Browser, a software application used to locate and display Web pages. The two most popular browsers are Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. Both of these are graphical browsers, which means that they can display graphics as well as text. In addition, most modern browsers can present multimedia information, including sound and video, though they require plug-ins for some formats.
Server There are 2 categories of servers utilized with the SOA4 technology: Database servers and web servers. The database server is used in support of the actual business data required by the business enterprise. The web server enables the SOA4 technology to deliver the web-application to individual users.
Cache Pronounced cash, a special high-speed storage mechanism. It can be either a reserved section of main memory or an independent high-speed storage device. Two types of caching are commonly used in personal computers: memory caching and disk caching. SOA4 uses both memory and disk caching via a technique known as smart caching, in which the system can recognize frequently used data and maximize program efficiency. Caching the program allows for the 56Kbps modem delivery of SOA4. The applet is maintained on the client and updated as needed.
GUI Graphical User Interface. The junction between a human user and a computer program.
Metadata Metadata is how SOA4 describes the application in a database which is read at runtime to produce the application. Metadata descriptions provide the realtime application on demand. Interpretation of metadata renders the look, feel, and behavior of the specific SOA4-powered application.
HTML HyperText Markup Language. HTML is the authoring language used to create documents on the World Wide Web. HTML is similar to SGML, although it is not a strict subset.
DHTML Dynamic HyperText Markup Language. Web pages dynamically changed by user parameters, such as: Geographic location, time of day, profile of the reader.
JSP JavaServer Pages. A server-side technology, JavaServer pages are an extension to the Java servlet technology that was developed by Sun. JSPs have dynamic scripting capability that works in tandem with HTML code, separating the page logic from the static elements -- the actual design and display of the page. Embedded in the HTML page, the Java source code and its extensions help make the HTML more functional, being used in dynamic database queries, for example. JSPs are not restricted to any specific platform or server.
XML Extensible Markup Language. XML is a pared-down version of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language), designed especially for web documents. used in dynamic database queries, for example. JSPs are not restricted to any specific platform or server.
RDBMS Relational DataBase Management System. RDBMS is a type of database management system (DBMS) that stores data in the form of related tables. Relational databases are powerful because they require few assumptions about how data is related or how it will be extracted from the database. As a result, the same database can be viewed in many different ways.
Almost all full-scale database systems are RDBMS's.
SQL Structured Query Language. SQL is a standardized query language for requesting information from a database.
Java Java is an object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems encompassing the best features of C++, and used for the World Wide Web.
JDBC Java DataBase Connectivity. JDBC is a Java API that enables Java programs to execute SQL statements. This allows Java programs to interact with any SQL-compliant database. Since nearly all relational database management systems (DBMSs) support SQL, and because Java itself runs on most platforms, JDBC makes it possible to write a single database application that can run on different platforms and interact with different DBMSs.
JVM Java Virtual Machine. An abstract computing machine, or virtual machine, JVM is a platform-independent programming language that converts Java bytecode into machine language and executes it. Most programming languages compile source code directly into machine code that is designed to run on a specific microprocessor architecture or operating system, such as Windows or UNIX. A JVM -- a machine within a machine -- mimics a real Java processor, enabling Java bytecode to be executed as actions or operating system calls on any processor regardless of the operating system. For example, establishing a socket connection from a workstation to a remote machine involves an operating system call. Since different operating systems handle sockets in different ways, the JVM translates the programming code so that the two machines that may be on different platforms are able to connect.
JRE Java Runtime Environment. JRE provides the mechanism for the SOA4 technology to operate within any compliant web browser.
Applet A program designed to be executed from within another application. Unlike an application, applets cannot be executed directly from the operating system. A well-designed applet can be invoked from many different applications.
Web browsers, which are often equipped with Java virtual machines, can interpret applets from Web servers. Because applets are small in file size, cross-platform compatible, and highly secure (can't be used to access users' hard drives), they are ideal for Internet applications accessible from a browser.
Servlet An applet that runs on a server. The term usually refers to a Java applet that runs within a Web server environment.
This is analogous to a Java applet that runs within a Web browser environment. Java servlets are becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to CGI programs. The biggest difference between the two is that a Java applet is persistent. This means that once it is started, it stays in memory and can fulfill multiple requests. In contrast, a CGI program disappears once it has fulfilled a request. The persistence of Java applets makes them faster because there's no wasted time in setting up and tearing down the process.
RMI Remote Method Invocation. RMI is a set of protocols that enable Java objects to communicate remotely with other Java objects. RMI is a relatively simple protocol, but unlike more complex protocols such as CORBA and DCOM, it works only with Java objects. CORBA and DCOM are designed to support objects created in any language.
EJB Enterprise JavaBeans is a Java API developed by Sun Microsystems that defines a component architecture for multi-tier client/server systems. Because EJB systems are written in Java, they are platform independent. Being object oriented, they can be implemented into existing systems with little or no recompiling and configuring.
SOA4 API SOA4 Application Program Interface. a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications.
Most operating environments, such as MS-Windows, provide an API so that programmers can write applications consistent with the operating environment. Although APIs are designed for programmers, they are ultimately good for users because they guarantee that all programs using a common API will have similar interfaces. This makes it easier for users to learn new programs.
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